From the monthly archives: "January 2012"

More evidence that disrupted body rhythms affect health…negatively. I wrote a piece recently for the Champion’s Club Community on rhythmic sleeping. The premise: we do much better when we follow our natural rhythms, whether talking about dietary habits or sleep patterns. And by observing our rhythms, we’ll be less likely to throw our physiological fluctuations off.

Case in point: Researchers from Imperial College London found a connection between disruptions in the biological clock and type 2 diabetes. They found that people who have rare genetic mutations in the receptor for melatonin have a greatly increased risk for adult-onset diabetes.

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone present in numerous living organisms from animals, to plants, to microbes. In animals, circulating levels have an effect on many processes related to the biological clock (our daily sleep-wake cycles), among many other processes including cancer suppression.

Melatonin works primarily through activation of melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2). Along with the sleep-wake cycle, melatonin influences insulin release getting the body ready for sugar metabolism following a meal. Mutations in the MT2 receptor (four rare ones to be exact) is associated with a six times increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is a disorder of decreased insulin receptors causing insulin resistance and relative deficiency. The researchers report that the mutations of MT2 receptors disrupt the connection between the body clock and insulin release, resulting in abnormal control of blood sugar.

The investigators looked at over 7,000 people to evaluate the MT2 gene. They identified 40 variants associated with type 2 diabetes, four of which are very rare and make the receptor incapable of responding to melatonin. The effect of these four variants was then confirmed in an additional group of nearly 12,000 people. While the study found a link between the mutations and diabetes–no direct causal relationship was concluded.

So I go back to the main point of my thoughts on body rhythms–it’s best to maintain our rhythms for the most part. What I mean is that if you generally eat three meals a day, you’d be wise to not fluctuate from that rhythm, and eat at pretty much the same time every day. And the same is true for our sleep cycles: it’s best to develop and maintain a rhythm, so that you don’t disrupt your own metabolism by interfering with your natural body clock. Erratic sleep patterns are the quickest way to a sleep disorder, which will diminish health.

This current study is just further support of what I believe to be a universal principle of rhythm. Live within universal laws and you will feel–and demonstrate–the most vitality. Along with practicing the other six keys to optimal health, observing natural rhythms will help you avoid the extreme fluctuations that can lead to dis-ease.  Oscillate wisely.

People suffering from low back pain, specifically from herniated disks, might find temporary relief by doing McKenzie back exercises. These low back extension exercises utilize a light pumping action at the low back to help squeeze disk bulges back into the intervertebral spaces.

McKenzie exercises, unfortunately, do not work for everybody–in fact, possibly only ~ 50% of herniated disk low back pain sufferers will respond to extension (some respond better to flexion) movements. The only way to know is…to try. So gently get down to the floor (please work on breaking inflammation with several ice bag applications beforehand, otherwise you might not get back up without help), and push your upper torso upward, while leaving your hips on the ground. Do in a pumping action as demonstrated in the video.

Go slowly. If it is going to work, you’ll feel the improvement rather quickly. You can try two sets of ten pumps, but if the pain gets worse after several pumps, discontinue the practice.

It is of utmost importance to call a chiropractor right away if you are suffering from severe low back pain (especially with numbness and/or tingling). But you can try these low back exercises to see if they provide any pain relief. Low back pain is no fun and it can linger–don’t suffer; call your local neighborhood chiropractic office today.

So I’ve recently posted on dry brushing–a health and beauty secret that I’ve used for two decades to help keep my skin soft and pliable. It also keeps my sensory system stimulated, and the blood and lymph flow circulating freely through their respective vessels, which in turn promotes a beautiful complexion.

But there’s a second practice to go along with dry brushing, and that’s the Scottish shower (Ss). The Ss is a practice of alternating hot and cold water while taking a shower. At a bare minimum, it’s finishing a shower with a blast of cold water. I’ve also been practicing this technique for many years, and the benefits are enormous.

The principle behind Scottish showers is that heat causes the blood vessels to move toward the surface in a process called vasodilation. The body does this to increase circulation, release heat, and promote healing. Cold, on the other hand, causes vasoconstriction–a narrowing of the blood vessels due to contraction of smooth muscle. The vessels also contract inward, deeper toward the organs of the body, preserving heat, reducing blood flow and decreasing blood pressure. Taken in alternating rounds, the hot then cold water blasts will induce a sort-of pumping action by the circulatory system, leading to a number of physiological benefits.

Scottish showers promote optimal temperature regulation by modifying the sensory functions of hypothalamic thermoregulatory centres to increase heat release during hot weather, and lowering heat loss during cold.

They also stimulate the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Studies have shown that the regular practice of taking cold showers increased white blood cells and the production of the body’s natural blood thinning enzymes, improving micro circulation. It also stimulated the production of testosterone in men, and boosted women’s production of estrogen.

Taking cold showers has also been shown to increase the body’s anti-oxidant capabilities, with a rise in glutathione and a reduction of uric acid. Low glutathione is involved in many illnesses including cardiovascular conditions, pulmonary diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, aging, and toxic pesticide exposure.

Cold water immersion reduces recovery time in athletes, enhances repeat performance, and reduces exercise induced muscle damage. It also raises thresholds of pain tolerance, reduces muscle spasm, and improves subjective well-being. It has even been shown to improve mood in depressed people.

Next, how do you take a Scottish shower? You begin by making the water as hot as you can handle. Let the water run over every part of your body including the scalp (good for promoting healthy hair and scalp). Then turn the water temperature down to the coldest you can take (you’ll be able to take more as you get used to the practice). Let the water run over your entire body (this is the tough part, but you can let out a yelp; I do) for about half a minute or so, then back to hot again, and repeat in cycles, always finishing with cold.

You can do this for anywhere from one to seven cycles. I do three cycles every shower.

I’m telling you that this will quite possibly be the most invigorating practice you’ll ever take part in. Along with the benefits I’ve listed above, you will feel the sensory stimulatory effects for up to several hours afterward, see improvements to your skin tone and complexion, and men will discover an increase in sexual endurance, all from the regular practice of taking cold showers.

Scottish showers is a simple yet powerful practice, and worth the discipline. From neurological to immune to aesthetics, nearly every system is benefited from alternating hot and cold showers. Practiced along with dry brushing and your body will respond with renewed youth and vigor. Take it from me, these two timeless health and beauty practices work.

Prick up your ears medical science, Universal Intelligence speaks again. This time via the pneumococcal bacteria which has a nasty little evolutionary habit of adapting to stressors (in this case the pneumococcal vaccine) by changing the makeup of its outer coat. The bug, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, known to cause childhood pneumonia and meningitis has been a major player in worldwide illness and death since the late 19th century. It is thought to kill over a million young children around the world each year.

According to research conducted at the University of Oxford, the bacterium carries out a little genetic presto-chango by recombining with other, slightly different bacteria, so that the vaccine no longer recognizes it. Nice. Natural selection at its finest, and it shows the incredible intelligence that has permeated life from the start.

The pneumococcal vaccine works by eliciting antibody production against the polysaccharide coating of the bacteria. By recombining its genes with that of other pneumococcal serotypes, the bacteria successfully renders the vaccine less effective. And this is exactly what happened in Great Britain after it adopted an American formula in 2000 that targeted seven serotypes (different varieties) and was highly effective in preventing transmission from children to adults.

Researchers sought to find the answer to the vaccine’s reduced effectiveness, and through cutting-edge genetic analysis they were able to uncover the mystery. The vaccine has since been replaced with a newer and wider acting one targeting 13 serotypes, but it does show some potential problems of the future.

I respect the medical innovation that has led to the development of such useful drugs and vaccines that have provided us with so much protection over the last century. But if I’ve said it once I’ve said it a million times, we rely far too heavily on drugs and vaccines, and not enough on strengthening the human constitution. Antibiotic resistant bugs are directly related to antibiotic overuse—prescribing them for every cough and runny nose “that just won’t go away” is ludicrous.

I still hear numerous people report that they run to the doctor after being sick for “one whole week,” and the doctors give them the drugs. Listen people, let your body do the job! It should be strong enough to handle most routine bugs; but I know the medical profession, pharmacies and drug companies push the idea that this year will be the year that we all die from the flu unless we get the coveted flu shot. WAKE THE EFF UP! Listen to Mother Nature. She’s telling you that all life forms evolve, including microorganisms. We can slow down the need to develop new drugs by not medicating every physical challenge people have. Duh! Everybody has a responsibility on this one.

V to the M#$F%# D

You know what makes NFL football players the smartest in all professional sports? It’s their love and respect for chiropractic. That’s right! Every NFL club has its team chiropractor, and from the beginning the San Francisco 49ers have led the charge.

Who doesn’t remember Joe Montana getting adjusted before Superbowl XXIV? And Roger Craig? And Jerry Rice? Keeping in line with a long list of 49er greats, superstar tight end Vernon Davis is also a regular chiropractic client. Why, you may ask, considering that there are still a few Neanderthals that claim chiropractic is for suckers? Well in Davis’ words:

[Chiropractic] helps me to go out and perform at my very best each and every week. So that’s why I get the work done, because not only does it help, it makes it possible for me to stay healthy. I benefit by this by prolonging my career. This game is very brutal on your body–it can really tear you down. My experience with chiropractic care has taken me to a whole other level with my game, my performance on the field. I’m able to stay healthy and just play; play for a long time, and play till the end of the game.

Doesn’t ‘believe’ in chiropractic

Yes, many other NFL greats have said the same–Emmitt Smith, Jerry Rice, Ed Reed, Maurice Jones-Drew, and even last year’s Superbowl MVP, Aaron Rodgers, whose father, Ed, is a chiropractor (booyah!)

So why are these multi-million dollar athletes choosing chiropractic to stay healthy and prolong their careers? If you don’t get it by now…man, you may as well lay down your club and fossilize.

Watch the video of Vernon Davis speaking about chiropractic:

The most common chronic neck pain condition I see in my West Hollywood sports chiropractic office is related to untreated or incompletely treated whiplash injuries. In cervical acceleration-deceleration (CAD) automobile accidents, the most common being rear-end collisions (a common occurrence in Los Angeles and Beverly Hills), the head is translated (accelerated) in one direction, usually forward, and then snapped back (decelerated) in the opposite direction. This can cause small micro-tears of the scalene muscles at the front of the neck, leading to inflammation, spasmodic guarding, and severe pain.

Far too many people fail to get their whiplash neck injuries treated properly following a motor vehicle accident. Either they don’t see a chiropractor at all, or the treating chiropractor (watch out for mills, people) neglects this important area, primarily the scalenes. It is not uncommon for me to see people with 10+ years chronic neck pain from the scar tissue and adhesions built up in this area.

Aside from effective chiropractic care to relieve the chronic neck pain caused by an auto accident, the scalene muscles need also be worked. But you can help your cause at home by doing the stretches outlined in the video below. The scalene muscles attach from the front of the cervical spine to the collar bone, so when tight, they can cause a forward head carriage, impingement on the nerves going into the arms (causing numbness and tingling), and neck pain.

Watch the video below for the best stretches for the scalene muscles to relieve pain from a whiplash neck injury.

I would love to share with you a health and beauty secret practiced in the spas of Europe and Russia, and that I have been doing regularly for years. The first is called dry brush massaging, and it is a stupendous way to care for your skin and other systems.

Dry brush massage, or dry brushing as I call it, is using a dry vegetable fiber brush to lightly scrub the dead skin cells off your body. Very much like a body scrub spa treatment here in the U.S., dry brushing is a way to stimulate the skin and remove the upper epidermal layer, leaving a fresh, rosy complexion to your body.

I like to use a vegetable fiber brush that you can get at most health food stores. In Los Angeles I like Erewhon Natural Foods near CBS on Beverly Blvd., which right down the street from my West Hollywood chiropractic office. You can also use a loofah or a coarse sponge if you have one lying around, but make sure it’s dry.

Starting with the soles of your feet, brush vigorously in rotational motions, and brush your entire body. When first starting the practice, go lightly, as your skin will be sensitive. You’ll want to be extra careful around the genitalia, axilla (armpits), and neck, which are very sensitive; and DO NOT brush the face (dry brush is too rough for the facial skin, and a good exfoliating scrub should do fine here). You want to brush until your skin becomes warm, glowing and rosy.

Five to ten minutes of dry brushing should be fine. The best time for dry brush massage is first thing in the morning or right before bed. I think dry brushing once a month is plenty, but I know some people do it more often. I do, however, think that more than once per week is excessive–moderation is key here.

The skin is the largest eliminative organ of the body (in size, not function). This surprises some to hear, but our skin is specifically designed to excrete impurities (along with its protective, sensory and other functions). When dead skin cells accumulate on the outer layers, the pores of the skin can become clogged, preventing the excretion of impurities and wastes. Further, vitamin D is produced in the deepest epidermal layers of the skin in response to sun absorption, so keeping the outermost layers as desquamated (sloughed off) as possible should help on this end too.

Finally, regular dry brushing can energize the lymphatic and circulatory systems, stimulating the movement of vital fluids. It will also stimulate the nervous system, helping you reconnect with the sensory receptors on the surface of your skin, and act as a vitality rejuvenator. Dry brushing also stimulates oil production from the glandular system, giving your skin a healthy sheen.

Dry brushing is a wonderful health and beauty practice sure to increase vitality, beautify your complexion, and improve your overall health. It’s a powerful natural anti-aging technique that I’ve been taking advantage of for years. Visit your local health food store and purchase a dry brush today. Dry brush for health, wellness and ageless beauty–you’ll be pleasantly amazed at the results.

*I refuse to entertain notions of cellulite removal from dry brushing as the suggestion of such is absurd.

I was recently asked by a twitter follower how much vitamin D is needed, and how much is too much. This question is much more complex than can be done justice in 140 characters, so I decided to write a quick guide to determining your vitamin D needs.

You’ll need to start by getting your blood D levels checked. Okay, there’s lots of differing opinion on how, and what, and where, and so forth. Let’s just keep things simple: Next time you are at the doctor’s getting a physical, ask him or her to do a vitamin D test (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D test). They will run the blood you are already providing them with, although my physician often forgets, requiring me to go back in for a second blood letting. Whatever–it’s worth it to me.

You’ll probably have to pay for the test if you live in the U.S. The last one I got cost me somewhere in the $200 range, and that was after insurance covered a minimal portion. Listen, I believe so strongly in getting blood levels of D checked, that the cost is also worth it to me. (Life Extensions Foundation endorses a $47 test that you can get by calling the 800-number in their article here).

You will get your results within a couple of days. The numbers can vary depending on the lab, but good reference points for adults are between 30-100 ng/mL for optimal levels. Levels of Serum D between 20-29 ng/mL indicate insufficiency, while anything below 20 ng/mL is a frank deficiency (that includes in children as well, although anything above 20 ng/mL is considered optimal for pediatrics).

If your blood D levels come in at 29 ng/mL or less, your doctor may prescribe 50,000 international units (IU) for a short course to bring you back up to par. After that, taking anywhere from 1,000-10,000 IUs per day is recommended to keep levels up, of course, those numbers depend on the source. The standard is that you want to bring the numbers above 30 ng/mL, but according to some, optimal levels are above 50-60 ng/mL (this is the range I’d shoot for as I trust these sources, and here).

Obviously, what you need depends on your current levels, so again, getting tested is a must. I want to emphasize that vitamin D is the sun-nutrient, and in my opinion, getting adequate sunlight is the best approach. But I do realize that parts of the world get very little sunlight at various times of the year, so I am a believer in supplementation.

So, there is no easy answer to the “how much vitamin D” question. Get tested, find where you are, and then go from there. Hope that helps.

It’s baaaack…swine flu, baby. But will it be with a vengeance? A current report lists the number of dead in Mexico due to an outbreak of A(H1N1) swine flu at 9, with 573 cases being detected officials said Sunday. The strain represents 90% of the flu cases in the, country, according to the health ministry.

Officials state that the number has risen sharply from the 333 detected on Thursday, but Mexican authorities have brushed aside suggestions of a new health emergency, despite tracking new cases since December. More than 1,250 people died in Mexico (and 17,000 worldwide) in 2009 due to the H1N1 pandemic of that year.

Outside of Mexico, there doesn’t seem to be much to worry about at the moment. If you recall in 2009 U.S. health authorities attempt to create a big scare, and consequent mass inoculation against the H1N1, and what a fiasco that turned out to be.

I’m not saying that a swine flu outbreak can’t be a real danger to the modern world, but it didn’t turn out that way in ’09, not as far as the potential hysteria could have been, and it doesn’t look like it will now. But I’ll keep my eyes open for ya. Till then–stay calm everybody!

In my book, The Six Keys to Optimal Health, I propose that there are three parameters by which one can evaluate one’s health: how one looks, how one feels, and how one functions. But there might even be a fourth way, and that is how one smells. I know this might sound obvious to some, and to others an absurdity, but I assure you it’s something we are just learning.

Body scent, or the more oft-used term body-odor is produced when secretions from the apocrine sweat glands come into contact with bacteria on the skin. The apocrine sweat glands are located in the axillae (armpits), the areola of the nipples, and the genitoanal region. They are inactive until puberty, at which time they are stimulated by sex hormones to secrete an odorless, milky substance that reacts with our skin bacteria to create pheromones, which are thought to function as chemical attractors for potential mates.

Now here’s where it gets interesting: Several recent studies have shown that people smell different due to the types of bacteria they have on their bodies. For instance, one study carried out by high school students (I know…so proud of those little geniuses) showed that we can accurately identify our own smell, and also with a very high frequency rate, that of our friends. Useful right, to be able to discern between self, tribe and others? And another study done in Thailand used a mechanical nose (just play along) to find that people did smell different based on their bacterial makeup. Wow! So how does this relate to health?

A third study conducted last year at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in Novosibirsk, Russia showed that female volunteers, who compare the odor of the sweat of healthy men to that of men infected with Gonorrhea and men who had been treated for Gonorrhea, consistently rated the odors of the men with Gonorrhea as worse than either those without the disease or those who had already been treated for it. Whoa! Yes, it appears that humans have the ability to discern another’s health through their smell (at least with regard to gonorrhea). Fascinating!

So there you have it–the nose knows, or so it appears. It really does make sense to me. I had always noticed that elderly people have a certain smell to them, different from younger people, and not necessarily bad, mind you–just different (the Japanese call it Kareishu). Not suggesting that elderly people cannot be healthy (as I speak very frequently to the affirmative here in this blog), but that our smells may change as our bodies change, whether we are talking aging or illness. I am certain that even the foods we eat regularly contribute to our smell…and I don’t just mean garlic breath, either.

What fascinating information coming from the world of olfaction–an obsession of mine. I am certain there are more to the biological functions of smell than meets the nasal passages, and our brains’ ability to process these olfactory (scent) inputs is an evolutionary phenomenon of the most intriguing character. Looking forward to more on this subject in the near future.

Every junkie knows it’s unwise to share needles, but somebody needs to tell it to diabetics. Sharing insulin pens puts people at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis viruses and HIV. And here’s the kicker: Infection can occur even if an insulin pen’s needle is changed.

Insulin pens are injector devices that contain a reservoir for insulin or an insulin cartridge. They’re designed to enable patients to self-inject insulin and are intended for single-person use. But sharing is what some diabetics are doing. Not smart, folks. Check it:
In 2009, reports of improper insulin pen use in hospitals led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue an alert to health care workers (duh!) to remind them that pens are for single-patient use only. But despite the warning, there have been continuing reports of patients put at risk through inappropriate reuse and sharing of insulin pens, including an incident last year that required notification of more than 2,000 potentially exposed patients, said the Centers of Disease Control (CDC).
The CDC’s recommendations:

  • Insulin pens containing multiple doses of insulin are meant for use on a single patient only, and should never be used for more than one person, even when the needle is changed.
  • Insulin pens should be clearly labeled with the patient’s name or other identifying information to ensure that the correct insulin pen is used only on the correct patient.
  • Hospitals and other facilities should review their policies and educate staff regarding safe use of insulin pens and similar devices.
  • If re-use of an insulin pen occurs, exposed patients should receive immediate notification and be offered appropriate follow-up, including blood-borne pathogen testing.

The recommendations apply to any setting where insulin pens are used, including health care facilities, assisted living or residential care facilities, health fairs, shelters, detention centers, senior centers, schools and camps. Be safe, diabetics–share no insulin pens. Nuff said.

In the news of the nauseating this weekend, the Centers of Disease Control (CDC) reports that illegally imported bushmeat confiscated at five major U.S. airports contained potentially dangerous bacteria. Items confiscated as part of the study included raw to semi-cooked animal parts, including those of primates like baboons and chimpanzees as well as various rodent species. The bushmeat was imported from Africa.

Among the pathogens identified in the products were a zoonotic retrovirus, simian foamy viruses, and several nonhuman primate herpesviruses. This presents a risk to humans as pathogens can spread from wild animals to people. In fact, some believe that HIV may have originally been transferred from apes to humans, and that a second AIDS-like epidemic is possible through this type of transmission, called zoonosis.

It’s not just bushmeat that poses a threat, but also wild animals imported as pets. A study conducted by EcoHealth Alliance showed that over a six-year period that began in 2000 approximately 1.5 billion live wild animals were legally imported into the country with 90% slated for the pet trade. I mean, who wasn’t shocked by the news of this loser releasing 56 exotic animals he was holding in captivity on his property in Ohio. Said Ian Lipkin, a researcher from Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health,

“Exotic wildlife pets and bushmeat are Trojan horses that threaten humankind at sites where they are collected in the developing world as well as the US. Our study underscores the importance of surveillance at ports, but we must also encourage efforts to reduce demand for products that drive the wildlife trade.”

The United States is one of the largest consumers of imported wildlife products and wildlife.

Some of the pathogens that can be contracted by humans zoonotically are:

  • Ebola virus–found in chimps, gorillas and bonobos, and spread to humans by handling and consuming the meat of such great apes
  • Monkeypox virus–found in the bushmeat of African squirrels from the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the virus which causes AIDS, originated from a similar virus in primates called Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV); researchers believe that HIV probably initially jumped into humans after people in Africa came into contact with infected bush meat. There are several distinct strains of HIV, indicating that this cross-species transfer has occurred several times.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has also reported that more than 55 million pounds (25 million kilograms) of wildlife products enter the country each year, with New York City being the most common port of entry followed by Miami, and Los Angeles.

All I can say is…c’mon people! What’s with the desire to own exotic animals as pets? This is such a cruel and idiotic practice, I don’t even know where to begin. I mean, the Florida everglades being invaded by Burmese pythons released by pet owners–duh! I’m sorry but I just don’t sympathize with people that get their faces bitten off by pet chimps. Not only is the practice of owning exotic animals and importing bushmeat a danger to the individual, but it puts us all at risk. Both these practices need to be outlawed and severely punished. Offenders of this nature are savages in my book. Try evolving, dammit.

Thought I would end the year with a little fun. Recent studies suggest that people who read fiction might be better at understanding others. In fact, regular readers of fiction may be better at social interaction than non-fiction readers (or heavens-forbid non-readers).

In one study, psychologists assessed the reading habits of 94 adults. They then tested the volunteers on two types of social skills–emotion perception and social cognition. For emotion perception, the volunteers were given a test whereby they were required to discern a person’s emotional state from photographs of just the eyes. You can find that test here. Please try it–I’d like to know whether you are a fiction reader and how you scored. I am a sometimes fiction reader, but definitely I consume way more non-fiction than any other genre. I scored 26, which is average.

In the second test, participants answered questions about video clips of individuals interacting. The researchers found that the more fiction people read, the better they were at perceiving emotion in the eyes and, to a lesser extent, correctly interpreting social cues. These results drew the first strong connection between reading fiction and social skills.

Since this study was published in 2006, more research has been done in the area showing that regular fiction readers perform better in understanding social cues and interactions. Kooky huh? But it makes sense. Essentially, scientists believe, fiction allows the reader to immerse him or herself into a story. It is in the unfolding of story, that the reader gets to understand human emotions, and thus can extrapolate this understanding to the world around them.

There was a time when scientists thought the opposite–that reading fiction could do little to help people understand others, because it was made up. Uh uh…good fiction is understanding human emotions, because without them a good story is rarely told. We are emotional beings, and so we resonate with the human condition.

Yes, these results make sense to me, although I would have never thought about it one way or another before I heard of the above test and findings. G’head…take the test. See how you do and report back. I’d like to know. Happy New Year.

Copyright © 2013 Dr. Nick Campos - All Rights Reserved.