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simon-migaj-Yui5vfKHuzs-unsplash (Copy)Mindfulness has become a fashionable term over the last few years, for good reason: as an ancient practice cultivated to allow practitioners to come to know themselves, mindfulness has been shown scientifically to reduce mental and physical effects of stress. Stress can be both beneficial and detrimental, depending on how one perceives it, but since most people tend to experience stress negatively, it can lead to a number of physical conditions which ultimately break down the body. In fact, stress related disorders are estimated to be responsible for 75-90 percent of all doctor’s visits, causing such problems as headaches, upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, chest pain, problems sleeping, and even sexual problems. Having a tool, then, to minimize stress and its effects on the mind and body is invaluable.

Mindfulness is the deliberate attention to Self – a moment by moment awareness of what is going on around and within oneself. It is attentively observing experience as it unfolds without evaluating or judging it and also accepting what is and what isn’t, in the moment, in present time. Mindfulness is the practice of being in the here and now in full attention. I like to call it conscious consciousness – one is consciously aware of one’s consciousness when in mindfulness. Easier said than done for the uninitiated, but reaching this state is definitely cultivatable.

To understand mindfulness one really needs to understand mindlessness. Mindlessness is not a derogatory term as it is used here – it does not mean stupid, ignorant, or thoughtless. What it refers to is the state of being on auto-pilot. The human brain has evolved for a certain amount of efficiency. Like other autonomic processes, we do not have to think about our moment to moment brain activity. To understand this, it is best to first make note of processes in our body that need no conscious awareness: breathing, digestion, nutrient assimilation, waste production and elimination, cellular respiration, and the list goes on and on. Like these processes, many brain functions require no active input on our part. In fact, our brain produces thousands of thoughts per day. It is difficult to know how many, but one really comes to understand the constancy of our thought stream when trying to quiet the mind in meditation. Thoughts are like molecules produced continuously in a cell – they happen whether we want them to or not.

complexityMore importantly, they happen without our taking notice. We do not have to think about our every action. We do not have to initiate every move, only the decision, and sometimes not even that. By freeing our mind of these routine actions, we are able to concentrate more on complex actions and behaviors, we are able to think about abstract ideas, and we are able to self-reflect (as far as we know, the only species that does this). Complex thinking has led to the creation of musical masterpieces, mathematical theories, and technological innovations. It has inspired timeless art, revolutionary science and allowed us to ask and ponder the great philosophical questions of life, those that give our lives meaning. Without an automation of our primary thought system, it is questionable whether we’d have ever accomplished anything more than our most basic survival. Automation of thought is the first and foremost system used by the brain on a regular basis. More than ninety percent of our day is made up of habitual actions. According to Daniel Kahneman, Nobel Prize winning psychologist and economist, ninety-eight percent of our mental processes are of the automatic, effortless, and unconscious kind, even though we tend to believe we are making rational decisions throughout the day. Most people are thus walking through life effortlessly unaware, allowing their automatic thoughts to flow in and out of consciousness, and create a stream of time which ultimately frames their experiences. I like to call this unconscious consciousness – consciously awake, just not aware.

This influx of automatic thoughts is barely noticed, except from time to time when a thought so pleasurable or disturbing enters the awareness causing desire or fear, and even many of these come and go with little notice. For the average person, unrestrained thought-flow, or what some call mind-chatter, can lead to anxiety, depression, mental overload, fatigue and even more severe mental illness. Unrestrained thought-flow can thus become a source of stress. Add to that all the other things we must act on in any given day, and it is no surprise that the bulk of doctor’s visits are for stress related conditions.

focusWhile many people turn to drugs and alcohol in a futile attempt to quiet the mind-chatter, these mind-alterers actually make matters worse over time. The only way to diminish mind-chatter is to pull the mind into attention. That’s why sports and exercise have been popular since antiquity. By focusing on a physical activity, the mind is forced into what Kahneman calls system 2 thinking, or one which is done with our conscious mind – conscious consciousness – effortful, intentional, and controlled. Making art and music are also amazing mind-chatter reducers. So is doing math, or thinking about anything in detail, like when you strategize or follow a protocol. Anything which forces the mind to focus reduces mind chatter (one reason smart phones have become addictive). However, even these activities, when done repeatedly can become automatic. Without a doubt, people strive to make automatic as many of their activities as possible. We call this mastery. And mastery makes what was once effortful a habituation. As a result, once we master an activity, it does have the potentiality to become an automatic process.

For all these reasons, practicing mindfulness regularly through meditation is an ideal activity. Working the mind into focused attention, about nothing in particular, is like lifting weights for the body. It is a mental exercise that enhances all other activities by the sheer strength of sharpening the awareness. This, over time, allows the mind to focus its attention during routine day-to-day activities, in other words, to attain and maintain conscious consciousness. The more we achieve states of mindfulness, the better we are minimizing stress: mind-chatter reduces, awareness improves, creativity is enhanced, and communication and personal connection deepen as a result of a meditation practice. Not only does this have positive consequences for our mental health but for our physical health as well. Health challenges caused by stress – like pain, addictions, chronic infections, and sexual dysfunctions – can be reduced and even remedied by taking up a regular meditation practice. Something as simple as a daily commitment to intentional awareness has the power to improve health and create wellness.

Mindfulness is a state of mind not easily accessed without some intentional effort. Working earnestly at focusing one’s awareness trains the mind to enter a state of conscious consciousness more regularly and with less effort. Once it is ingrained into the habituation system, all activities are illuminated by increased awareness. While it, too, will become a more automated process, it will paradoxically lead to spontaneity, as we become more conscious of every moment, bringing new meaning to our experiences. Ultimately, awareness assures our growth and development, which leads to richer experiences, in a cycle of expansion and change, keeping things novel and interesting. You can continue to walk through life on unconscious auto-pilot or put in the effort to become more aware, and thus more appreciative and attentive to the details that make your life rich.

Quite a blow being dealt to group therapy for drug rehab: Studies show it leads to greater drug use by teen abusersGo figure. According to one study, teenagers at high risk for drug use were more likely to smoke cigarettes and have disciplinary problems at school later in life if they had been enrolled in a teen focus group about drugs. In other words, the environment influenced behavior. Wow, groundbreaking!  In academic speak the phenomenon is known as deviancy training—the negative influence of friends on teen behavior or simply bad influence.

Researchers and some former teen group drug therapy members say that sitting in groups talking about drugs caused the teens to want to do more of the drugs they were abusing at the time. Even more counterproductive is that it made many of them want to try drugs they had never done before but had just heard about in therapy.  Ha ha ha ha ha ha ha….comedy.

Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) says, “Just putting kids in group therapy actually promotes greater drug use.”

Okay so what’s a better solution? Experts suggest that private counseling for teen drug abusers with their families in tow may be a better option.  I couldn’t agree more. In 2000 one researcher from the University of Miami department of epidemiology and public health found that among teens assigned to peer-therapy groups (in treatment for a minimum of four weeks) 17% reduced their marijuana habit, but 50% ended up smoking more. Hmmm…and 57% of teens who were assigned to family therapy showed a significant decrease in drug use, while 19% used more. I’m sold, how ’bout you?

Experts believe that part of the problem is inherent in the philosophy of group drug therapy in general, as advocated by twelve-step programs like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The first step encourages participants to admit they are “powerless” over their addiction and to surrender to a higher force.

Although this approach does help many addicts overcome their addictions, some experts believe that teens have difficulty interpreting this message and see it as being doomed to a life of addiction; in other words, some teens may feel defeated and labeled, so they give in to their urges believing that attempted abstinence is futile.

Despite individual and family therapy trumping group rehab in studies, the twelve-step model is still favored by institutions. Why? The obvious reason is economics. Group sessions just bring in more money: when 10-20 individuals can be seen in one hour, it doesn’t take an accountant to add up the dollars. Add to that the wide-availability of 12-step programs, as well as the fact that many drug counselors are former drug abusers and stay true to the method that worked for them, it’s no wonder that it is the method of choice to break teens of their drug-abusing habits.

Oh well, just another story showing the inefficiency of the familiar. It’s so hard for people, institutions, societies and nations to change even in light of a proven better way.  That’s what this blog, Optimal Health, is all about—change—so I know how slowly it can drag sometimes. But I appreciate studies like these, and the unsung heroes that try to spread the word. It’s the only way.

I have been and continue to be critical of twelve-step programs, because I see them as just a substitution for the addicting substance. I guess if you have to choose an addiction, AA is a little less hard on the body, but definitely not easier on the mind, as the addictive personality often gets hopped up on meetings. Just my observation. I am certain without question that individual work can break an addiction, and having families participate should only solidify the benefit. Putting teens in a group with their drug-using peers only makes for a short term dry party—once released, they’ll be back to using with a vengeance. At least that’s what the data shows.

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